Knee Surg Relat Res  
Femoral Footprint for Anatomical Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study
Young-Mo Kim, MD, Yong-Bum Joo, MD, Ki-Young Lee, MD, and Sung-Jin Hwang, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea
Correspondence to: Yong-Bum Joo, MD
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, 266 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 35015, Korea
Tel: +82-42-338-2482, Fax: +82-42-338-2480
Received: July 27, 2017; Revised: December 22, 2017; Accepted: January 5, 2018; Published online: March 19, 2018.
© Korean Knee Society. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: To identify the femoral footprint of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in Koreans.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen embalmed cadaveric knees (mean age, 70 years) were examined. First, the shape of the ACL was determined macroscopically. After the ACL femoral footprint was defined, the ACL was cut from the femur and a Kirschner wire was inserted into the center of the ACL, and the position was verified with a C-arm. The position was quantified on the C-arm field using the quadrant method. The length and width of the ACL were measured.
Results: Macroscopically, the ACL is a flat single bundle with an average length of 34 mm and an average width of 9 mm. On average, the center of the ACL insertion site measured with the quadrant method was positioned at 29.5%±2.8% in an anterior direction (from posterior), and at 38.5%±3.2% in a distal direction (from Blumensaat’s line). The anterior and posterior margins of the ACL femoral footprint were the resident’s ridge and the cartilage margin of the lateral femoral condyle, respectively.
Conclusions: The center of the ACL femoral footprint is positioned more anteriorly and distally than the positions identified in previous studies.
Keywords: Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Reconstruction


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